3 new abstracts Argan and Science: New Phytochemical Insights, the Arg – SULA NYC

3 new abstracts Argan and Science: New Phytochemical Insights, the Argan tree in Algeria and Fungi &Fruit Fly.

Ethnobotanic, Ethnopharmacologic Aspects and New Phytochemical Insights into Moroccan Argan Fruits.
Farid Khallouki, Mohamed Eddouks, Akdad Mourad, Andrea Breuer and Robert Wyn Owen report in the International Journal of Molecular Sciences, October 2017.
Although not essential for growth and development of the body’s major functions, nutraceuticals and cosmeceuticals may play a critical role in maintaining human health. The argan tree is a source of a number of bioactive metabolites. ( red: Metabolites control the pace of Metabolism  and serve useful biological functions in the cells) 
In this review, authors emphasize the importance of the argan tree and particularly its fruit from a socio-economic and environmental point of view.
Phytochemistry, ethnopharmacology and ethnobotany aspects are updated. A number of argan bioactive compounds may play an important role against several ailments including arthritis, hypertension, diabetes, skin diseases, cardiovascular disorders, and cancer.
Argan flesh (pulp) contains a broad spectrum of polyphenolic compounds which may have utility for incorporation into nutraceuticals and cosmeceuticals relevant to the food, cosmetic and health industries. Further research is recommended, especially on the health beneficial effects of the aminophenols.
In addition, a number of studies have determined the beneficial effects of argan oil and its byproducts against cardiovascular disease, cancer and diabetes. However, the molecular basis for these effects remains to be elucidated.
Only in vitro studies have been designed to identify how argan oil exerts its effects at the cellular and preclinical level. Research related to epidemiology (case control, and cohort studies) has to be reinforced, and care is needed to extrapolate in vitro data of argan fruits metabolites to the in vivo situations.
Other physiological phenomena, which may be influenced by the consumption of argan oil, warrant further research.
Phytochemicals (phytonutients): plant based, give the plant protection against diseases and have disease protection elements in humans too. 
Etude comperative de deux olantations d' Argania Spinosa  dans le Sahara Occidental Algerien. 
article posted in International Journal of Environmental Studies, august, 2017. by
Reda Kechairi, Benamar Benmahioul & Mohammed Ould Safi, Abou Bakr Belkaid University of Tlemcen, Algeria
The paper aims to quantify the difficulties in the transplantation and development of argan tree in the Algerian Western Sahara. A diagnosis of the regeneration by reforestation was established on two experimental stations: Tindouf and Adrar, during six consecutive years. The relation between the bioclimatic conditions and the rates of resumption, the phenology and the growth of Argania spinosa were analysed. The results showed the possibilities of introducing the species by seeding in both sites of plantations which belong to a dry and hyper dry Mediterranean continental and semi continental climate. The success rates vary between 26.4 and 33.8%, in Adrar and Tindouf respectively. Our results also showed the effect of watering on the growth of plants. Indeed, a regular regime of irrigation gave plants with an average height of 185 cm, in the station of Adrar, against 125 cm to Tindouf. The monthly description of phenological stages of the Argan tree represents a biennial cycle with delayed flowering of the floral buds during the hottest summer period of the year.
Diversity of Entomopathogenic fungi in Argane forest soil and their potential to manage Mediterranean fruit fly.
A. Hallouti et al., Ibn Zohr University, Agadir, Morocco; R. Bouharroud, INRA, Agadir, Morocco.
Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 5, 2017.


The present study forms a part of biological control against the medfly (Ceratitis capitata) and seeks to isolate and determine the diversity of the medfly-associated entomopathogenic fungi in soil samples collected from Argane (Argania spinosa) forest, in different localities of Souss-Massa region. Search and isolation of the indigenous populations of Ceratitis capitata entomopathogenic fungi was carried out by using larvae of this pest as baits. After trapping, isolation and identification of fungal isolates, a pathogenicity test was used to select fungal strains that have significant virulence potential against the Mediterranean fruit fly. The degree of virulence was estimated by the ability of the fungus to induce the disease and/or the death in the insect and also by calculating the lethal time 50 (LT50). The obtained results were clearly demonstrated the sensitivity of medfly to tested fungal strains and particularly to strains of Fusarium sp., Aspergillus niger and Scopulariopsis sp. that have shown high mortality rates (more than 84%) and to Trichoderma harzianum, Scedosporium sp., Epicoccum sp. and Ulocladium sp. with more than 70% mortality for the two tested concentrations. Furthermore these strains showed short LT50 (less than 83 hours).

All these results confirm the presence of entomopathogenic fungi of Ceratitis capitata in Argane soil, and prove the potential of entomopathogenic fungi for biocontrol of the Mediterranean fruit fly under laboratory conditions.

                 and for some Wikipedia trivia: A March 2000 study by National Human Genome Research Institute comparing the fruit fly and human genome estimated that about 60% of genes are conserved between the two species. About 75% of known human disease genes have a recognizable match in the genome of fruit flies,